Written by Yasuo Imamura
1. Introduction -- Aim of this paper
simultaneous terrorism, which attacked
Even now, New Yorkers are holding deep sadness and the sense of loss. Because downtown is the area which should be called a New Yorker's soul more than the economic center. The mean terror attacked the heart of New Yorker, and murdered many innocent people.
This paperfs aim is introducing some examples of sister city New York, which is going to recover from deep sadness again which are trying to re-develop and revitalize, and to make a suggestion especially centering on area redevelopment, and to show the hint of development, for Tokyo.
I had worked at Tokyo Metropolitan Government New York Representative Office from April 1998 to June 2000. In this paper, I used the notes of the interview in some organization that I visited those days as a material.
In addition, I would say that the opinion in this paper is my own not the TMGfs official policy or measure in advance.
somebody asks you to symbolize
population movement of
According to the result of Census 2000, the population of the New York Metropolitan Region became 21.49million (chart 1). Compared with 1990, it gained about 1.63million plus and 8.3% of increase.
the population of
The main causes of an increase depend on the influx of immigrants by the inner side, and the increase of the birth rate in the suburbs, respectively. In the data which the City of New York city planning office created based on the estimation of the federal Statistics Bureau, this tendency is clear in general (chart 3).
Old population movement had a pattern with which population flew out of the central part into the suburbs or other cities, while immigration concentrated from the world aiming at the central part (chart 4). This population movement makes the change of the city society as follows: (chart 5).
first, the immigration from overseas, which is seemed as the cheap labor force
without any job skill ? especially the immigration from Central and
In addition, it lapses into fund shortage and sufficient infrastructure maintenance becomes impossible. The safety in the city also gets worse.
Secondly, the middle-income class, who hates that social environment, gets worse in this way and that property value depreciates, moves out to the suburbs quickly. Because of rapid urbanization, the problems about infrastructure maintenance appear and they cause environmental aggravation in the suburbs. Since public transportation is insufficient especially, it is easy to set the problem by motorization. It was parallel to emasculation of a manufacturing industry advanced.
Thirdly, as rapid urbanization, sprawl, and the ghollowh of manufacture proceeds, industrial land becomes left as wasteland, called gBrownfieldh, meaning contaminated and devastated land.
(2) The subject about immigration, and some social equipment
The portion of the immigrants in NYC is largest in the New York Metropolitan Region. Therefore, while the history and culture of each race and ethnic community flourish an infinite charm to residents or a traveler in every place, an acute subject with surely arises due to the difference of lifestyle, the conflict with the incomprehensiveness of other languages, and difficulties for providing public services.
For this reason, the
at the time of prosperity, to a friendly view becoming strong to immigration, if
it becomes dull,
Moreover, the city government has been requesting the frame expansion of the H-1B visa given to laborers with special skill from the federal government. (cf.3) It is because this visa is required in order for immigrants to set to work on IT industry and the fashion community which bear development of city economy.
segregation is still deep-rooted in
In 1994, in order to improve a city situation that a high unemployment rate and a high crime occur frequently, the Giuliani Administration set the first aim at the stability of the safety that is a base for citizenfs life.
Giuliani appointed Mr. William J. Bratton, who had raised the big actual result
as the Boston Police Commissioner, as the NYPD Commissioner. He launched the
reform of the police. He also introduced the criminal statistics system called
gCOMPSTATh that utilized IT, and did grasping criminal generating &
arresting situation in arrangement of a unit on real time. Bratton transferred
authority from the
On the other hand, the atrocious crime decreased sharply as a result of increasing the police officers remarkably and controlling the street crimes which had been left till then (chart 8)(cf.4).The Giuliani administration promoted the conversion for labor welfare from welfare again while setting about reform of administrative organization. Furthermore, in order to expand employment, the Giuliani Administration implemented seamless tax reductions and it strove for activation of companies. The Giuliani Administration that governed NYC for 2 terms developing such a measure is highly esteemed with these accomplishments.
when we focus on the urban planning and the development in the
Such an organization and the place are
indispensable in order to solve the dispute in city area redevelopment,
community development, or neighboring society. In addition, they sometimes
unite, and move a state government and the federal government. As this, they
have big influence on city planning. The face-to- face in such an area faced
people, and there could not be any prosperity of present
I would like to mention gCommunity
Board" in the first place. This is a committee based on the City of
Now, five Boroughs in the city are classified into Community District (one area makes a population of 250,000 a maximum) of 59 in total, and this committee has 50 committee members.
The Borough President, who is an elective office, nominates the committee of 25 halves, and City Council Member of local election nominates a next half. Only one District Manager is in charge of each committee, and this manager performs the boardfs office work (this District Manager is the city personnel).
roles of community boards are mainly presentation of the opinion document to a
budget, presentation of the opinion document about land use, and presentation of
the opinion document to municipal government and its services. In this, the
participation to the procedure (The Uniform Land Use Review Procedure: ULURP)
especially about land use brought the big meaning. For example, by community
board No.8 (committee of an upper East area including the UN headquarters) of
However, it is most important as the actual condition to have come to be alike of the role of taking up the dispute and the problem in an area as a subject for discussion, and the solution method being shown, and performing regionally friction between communities is adjusted more often.
For example, how to take out garbage may be different and an antipathy may be disputed by this, because the committee intermediates and solves several types of problems in such a case. Community Board is equipment of a community improvement exceeding the range expected at the beginning although it is simple existence. (cf.5)
(4)CDC: Community Development Corporation
is one of them; churches build unionsf object exceeding the doctrine. Business
Improvement District is famous because many scholars introduced it in
When CDC is sorted by the origin, it has some types. To one, it came from originally the so-called movement of Historic Landmark Preservation, and it came to construct for revitalization of an area. This movement has started when the Penn Station was demolished in 1963. Many people started to claim that historic landmark preservation and restoration were necessary since then. Many examples which not only a big city but also the small city of the suburbs preserves and restores a historical building now, and are used for revival of an established city area are regarded. (cf.6)
Next, I would like to point out many religious community organizations; such Christian churches, and Judaism temples, Muslim churches set good CDC. About the inner city problem, which must take up fighting with poverty from the front from the first, there is a field out of which such an organization could not but come to the front. Various churches are also engaged in offer of community welfare or a residence, and job trainings now.
example, many churches exist in a
This organization raises the funds for many also from a financial institution, performs investment to this area, and improves a residence, stores, and welfare facilities.
There is another type of organization built aiming at preservation and a local improvement of property. This example of representation is Business Improvement District (BID). It is the organization of Non-Profit currently installed by making the state law of each state into a basis, and is a quasi-public organization.
to International Downtown Association assigning its headquarter in Washington,
D.C., more than 1200 BID exist now all over the world, and is expanding even to
Canada besides the United States, Europe, the countries in the Caribbean Sea,
Australia, and South Africa now(cf.8). There are 41 BID in the City of
Although that each BID is carrying out different programs respectively, the many of them are developing the enterprise which employed the special feature of an every region efficiently until they result something from installation of street furniture, patrolling an area, sanitation, job trainings in promotion of the information industry or the tourism.
Many developers restored several empty buildings as new comfortable apartments, and promoted IT industry business in this area with City government. Due to their activities, this area became gSilicone Alleyh where the accumulation of the information industry.
The main sources of revenue of BID are sources of revenue called gAssessmenth. They are made to decide that some rights of taxation of Real Property Tax that the city office has imposed are transferred to BID, and they are paid to a required place.
assessment amounts to 52 million dollars in whole City of
(5) Regional and/or Specialized Organization
As the third, it is the over a very wide area and special organization which must be raised. These organizations are the organizations excellent to special subjects over the very wide area, such as environment, traffic, and industry, by making a metropolis region into the range, and perform a special proposal to a government organization.
example, there is an organization called gRegional Plan Association; RPAh in the
New York Metropolitan Region. This is the organization, which tackles the
problem of the Tri-State area (consisting of
It has been built by the awareness of the issues that problems, such as a sprawl expanded across administrative districts, and air pollution and water pollution, housing supply, cannot be coped with. The members of an executive board are people like scholars, corporate managements, lawyers, financial specialists, and those who are devoting to urban planning in an every place region. Although RPA is a private organization neither controlled nor protected by law, a government organization refers to a proposal and advice of this organization. Governments have adopted some proposals by RPA. Unlike Japan which administration leads and decides upon city planning, such an organization builds and proposes city planning, a regional plan, and a design at first, administration adopts this, and the big special feature is in the place developed as its measure.
In addition, there are public benefit specialist groups like "Tri-State Transportation Campaign". They aim at the improvement of public traffic in the New York Metropolitan Region, and make various kinds of proposals related to urban problems.
Urban planning and development in
you oversee the introduced examples in
city is characterized by its formation. In the case of
addition, the art drawing the aspect of beautiful nature or society bloomed
after that by the hand of people who had immigrated. We can easily find that
example, although it is the Silicone Alley of Lower Manhattan brought into the
limelight by IT, it is materialized only after this also has historical
foundation. It would apply from the end of the 19th century at the beginning of
the 20th century, large-sized newspaper companies and the subcontract companies
of those, such as New York Times, put eaves in order, and
The influence on this background also with the big history of a theater was brought about. From the 1920s to the 1930s, many theaters and amusement facilities were accumulated here, and it was called "The Great White Way", and was the so-called "Ladiesf & Gentlemenfs Street".
While the selling of the alcoholic beverage was prohibited by the Prohibition, the underground organizations got powerful, and the safety on street got worse. The time of the splendid culture centering on a theater ended. After that, movies became popular since the arrival of the Great Depression. Movie was cheaper amusement.
War II ended, and since the institutions like a bus terminal would be built from
the necessity for, a mass transportation network and more people would go back
For revival of this area, the theater district, which was shining in the 1920s, became a core. It was diverted to a movie theater, or the closed theater was rebuilt, and a musical came to be performed. The source of revenue for restoration was squeezed out by selling off excessive bulk, in order to have been based on investment of the major company, or the tax cut of a city, and also to be specified as a landmark and to be able to perform the air-rights transferring by the zoning solution.
in order that a city might revive the brightness of "the
was not necessarily respected so much by the urban development of
Jacqueline Kennedy did her best for preservation of Grand Central Station which is a typical station building on a par with a Pen Station. These movements were connected with the establishment of a state method or a federal method which utilized the budget and taxation system for protection soon (chart 9). It is said for the effect of the incentive especially by the taxation system to have been remarkable. (cf.12)
It is one of the special features of
The second keyword of the urban planning
(a) Diversity of a function
Each block in
The clearest example is the
People carried out performing making the space in which it can live comfortably while establishing the regional economy, which can keep bearing the economic fluctuation by diversification of a type of industry. They considered that such a result was brought about as an invaluable teaching, since it was dependent on FIRE too much, and applying the brakes to residentfs reduction to aiming. (cf.13)
They cooperated with tackling promotion and an improvement of an area by BID, cooperating with a city and taking the part to training of IT industry, and the program with focusing on preparing the residential spaces (chart 11).
Consequently, the restoration and reconstruction of empty offices, which had been built before 1975, were supplied to 5,000 or more unit apartments. It was equal to the 5.8m million square feet floor for residence (chart 12). Like many food shops, schools, medical offices were located. Moreover, training of IT industry performed by one side the incentive by the taxation system and centering on the construction of the network between companies located in an area stored a success, and employment increased. Furthermore, the revitalization, which harnessed much tourist attractions, such as a goddess of freedom and South Street Seaport, also progressed. This area resulted to have various functions activating 7 days, 24 hours.
(b) Diversity of tools
technique of urban development is also very various in
I would introduce how CDCs collect their fund for urban planning, development, and community development as follows. (cf.14)
ú@) Fund-raising: From those who consent to a fund raising organization, the meaning of activity, and the purpose. If the side, which raises fund-raising, is registered into the state government as an organization of Not-for-Profit in that case, it will be made at the side, which the tax cut, contributed according to the contributed amount of money. Moreover, when fund-raising is being raised by the membership system, it is made at the side which a certain privilege and service offer contributed.
úA) Volunteerism: I have it offered to work. This is also considered a kind of supply of funds. In addition, free offer of rooms, such as a meeting and a forum, is considered the same way.
úB) Commission (Charging Fees): What collects a commission from those who participate in a certain program that CDC performs, or a company. There is an example, such as obtaining as an example the commission, which served as contribution from the company, which participates in an open-air market. Moreover, the commission to the office service of law accounts, etc., which CDC is offering, may be collected.
úC) Assessment: I already mentioned this as above.
úD) Tax Increment Financing: Structure currently made into an income in the fixed amount at CDC when the increase of asset value and tax revenues is extended by new development.
Structure lent to redevelopment through the development public corporation of the area.
úF) Loan Pool: financial institution pools funds, without defining the candidate for a loan, and becomes a medium.
úG) Micro Loan: What performs the loan of a very small frame (about 2500 dollars) for repair of an outer wall, repair of an instrument, a change, etc. to accumulate. In addition, since issue of the debenture (minibond) of a small sum etc. is performed, the flexibility of financing is quite high.
(c) Diversity of a background
In fact, just the diversity originating in being a use area or being a very ethnic town as a problem precedent to techniques, such as a taxation system, has done big influence over city area formation, administration service, and the whole management surface of a community.
an example is first given in respect of hard, there is a sign. City of
It does not have to use English although English is used fundamentally in fact. And in the area which immigration is concentrating, the native language of immigration for a sign is used together in many cases.
These signs are installed by requesting to the Department of Transportation from a community side in fact (cf.15). While English in the area raises unfamiliar residents' convenience, the effect, which raises the identity of an area, is acquired by this. Moreover, on the enclosure of a subway station, in case the surface of a wall on a platform etc. is repaired, creativity is put and it has become very various ornaments to make the noted board of a name of the station into what has a local rich color etc (cf.16). This is the same also in city administration service. For example, citizens receive many flyers for 7-8 languages print information of garbage collection (cf.17).
Although this has the deep tone currently performed under the pressure of the necessity that the information from a city is well-known rather than the service offered spontaneously itself, it can say anyway that it is characteristic administration service of this city no one but.
Next way of thinking about city planning
Here, one example of iron orbital maintenance is given. "Regional Plan Association; RPAh, which touched previously announced "The Third Plan -A Region at Risk-" in 1996 (cf.18). This is a regional vision that proposed the measures that grasped the problem of the New York Metropolitan Region synthetically, and would be turned in the 21st century.
In this planning, RPA symbolized the quality of life in Tri-State Area in the three following "E."
(a)Economy: While business retreated sharply from the end of the economy of the 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s, unemployment increased. Moreover, the income of the central core part was low and the so-called "urban sprawl of income" was seen.
(b)Environment: 350,000-acre park areas increased in number from the 1960s. However, on the other hand, the standard of the air cleanness that the federal government defined was not cleared. Moreover, in the suburbs, a sprawl continued. It spread to hills, forest and farmland. In the suburbs, urbanizing rate was higher than growth rate of population.
More than the half of the New York Metropolitan Region residents would become
African, Asian, and Latino in 2020. When there was no inflow of people with
various foreign culture and talents, there was no prosperity of present
After pointing out the subject of such "three E", RPA raises a policy in each field. Among those, maintenance of a rapid transit railway is proposed about the traffic problem ("Rx" is called).
is the proposal from three viewpoints of increase of economic development, an
environmental problem, and an employment opportunity. In this proposal, while
offer of the rapid transit railway service using the existing orbit etc. is
proposed, construction of the light rail transit linked to JFK and the
Starting as a base of free trade,
is the influence of a catastrophic disasters the second. This is main reason why
Tokyo Governor Michiyuki Matsuda
tried to opt for municipal district revision, and was going to establish the
city planning of new
should raise the surge of internationalization and computerization after The
Second World War as the third element of
there are several other elements mentioned yet, these three are main factors to
have specified the character of
I would like to perform some suggestions in accordance with some points of argument from here.
(1) History inherent
years has passed since the Second World War finished. In addition, we can count
80 year since Kanto Big Earthquake,
130 years from Meiji Revolution, and
400 years from
are also holding concern in the modern civilization imported from
I think in that case that it is also necessary to consider more both the method of preservation and the restoration may serve as powerful arms. The New York City Planning Department has applied special zoning to Water Front. A beautiful waterside scene is preserved to be handed down to future generations as civic share property. This is the fundamental way of thinking. It is specifically obliged to reserve 15 - 20% of a site as public space, or the building restrictions of securing a width of at least 600 feet (about 20m) from waterfs edge as "a scene corridor (Visual Corridor)" are performed. Furthermore, the builder and the lawyer are invited and matched with the personnel who take charge of office work from the exterior. Thus, a scene and a public space are preserved as property to future generations, and it is considered whether the method of leaving work to the posture in which it is going to use as resources and the thing with special skill and a special sense should greatly consider as reference.
have been anxious about frictions with circumference areas from the former in
such areas. It will be the key of the future point whether the local equipment,
which performs the adjustment, grows up. Furthermore, the policy in Japanese
society may also be necessary by announcing such ethnic areas as individually
attractive areas, and inviting tourists. Moreover, if we trace the history once
again, we realize the aspect of another
I like to consider here the function of the block in modernistic CBD (Central
Business District). We should focus on the fact that the areas in prosperity
have formed not just one use but the block with many functions. We can see this
fact in Marunouchi area recently. At
this point, it is clearly inferior to
When the John F. Kennedy junior fell to his death in 1999, New Yorkers felt so sad. So many people who brought bouquets gathered in front of his apartmentfs gate. The bouquets made the big accumulated piles. I thought the reason why New Yorkers felt so sad was he had had a frank personal character, and he had been a presidential son.
day, a friend of mine who is a New Yorker, pointed out my error. New Yorker felt
so sad because the Kennedy is the first minority family, which produced a
felt that I could understand New Yorker's mentality since then. Moreover, I
became to understand the reason why they were impressed with Japanese policing
system with police boxes installed in every neighborhood, the reason why they
were interested in Japanese school where students make the classrooms clean by
themselves, and the serene parks located in central business area of
When we think about urban development, we need the thoughtful attitude. Although it may be useful for us to research foreign examples that serve as a catalyst, it is not directly applicable. The backgrounds and histories of two cities differ completely.
think that that they do ask us to understand correctly ourselves and the special
feature of a Japanese itself. We should consider and protect our own history in
pride and hand it down to future generations. This is the first step that
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