New York and Tokyo

Written by Yasuo Imamura


1. Introduction -- Aim of this paper


@The simultaneous terrorism, which attacked New York on September 11, gave a big horrific shock to the world. The World Trade Center was the building complex of seven buildings centering on the two 110-story skyscrapers designed by a Japanese-American architect Mr. Minoru Yamasaki. So many companies had moved in this place from the world since the twin towers erection, and they acted very energetically. In addition, Lower Manhattan, where the World Trade Center located, is the birthplace of history in New York City.

Even now, New Yorkers are holding deep sadness and the sense of loss. Because downtown is the area which should be called a New Yorker's soul more than the economic center. The mean terror attacked the heart of New Yorker, and murdered many innocent people.

This paperfs aim is introducing some examples of sister city New York, which is going to recover from deep sadness again which are trying to re-develop and revitalize, and  to make a suggestion especially centering on area redevelopment, and to show the hint of development, for Tokyo.

I had worked at Tokyo Metropolitan Government New York Representative Office from April 1998 to June 2000. In this paper, I used the notes of the interview in some organization that I visited those days as a material.

In addition, I would say that the opinion in this paper is my own not the TMGfs official policy or measure in advance.


2. Immigration City, New York City


"When somebody asks you to symbolize New York City with just one phrase, what do you say?" To this, many people reply, "New York City is the economic center" in many cases. It is because many big companies make their decision in New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ.  They also deploy the head office function. However, if people turn their eyes to the society and formation of this city, it turns out that existence of immigrant specifies the character of a city called New York rightly.


(1)   The population movement of New York and the change of city structure


  According to the result of Census 2000, the population of the New York Metropolitan Region became 21.49million (chart 1). Compared with 1990, it gained about 1.63million plus and 8.3% of increase.

An increase in New York City mainly comprises immigration from overseas. An increase in Queens is especially remarkable, and 280,000 people hitting to about 40 percent of the increase of the 690,000 in whole cities are increasing in this area.

Moreover, the population of Manhattan, which has continued decreasing during the 20th Century, started to revamp for the first time in about 90 years. In New York City, the foreign-born citizen portion is currently estimated about 30% - no less than 40 %.( cf.1) Even if this rate compares with other big cities, it is high positively (chart 2). Population is increasing also in the suburbs.

The main causes of an increase depend on the influx of immigrants by the inner side, and the increase of the birth rate in the suburbs, respectively. In the data which the City of New York city planning office created based on the estimation of the federal Statistics Bureau, this tendency is clear in general (chart 3).

Old population movement had a pattern with which population flew out of the central part into the suburbs or other cities, while immigration concentrated from the world aiming at the central part (chart 4). This population movement makes the change of the city society as follows: (chart 5).

At first, the immigration from overseas, which is seemed as the cheap labor force without any job skill ? especially the immigration from Central and Southern America and Asian countries flows in large quantities into the core of the city. Their English capability is generally imperfect, and their income tends to stay low level, without the ability starting work. Therefore, the amount of the tax stored decreases, and that causes the result in which the cost to the welfare measure of education, the welfare to the administration service and jobless people according to many languages, begins to increase.

In addition, it lapses into fund shortage and sufficient infrastructure maintenance becomes impossible. The safety in the city also gets worse.

Secondly, the middle-income class, who hates that social environment, gets worse in this way and that property value depreciates, moves out to the suburbs quickly. Because of rapid urbanization, the problems about infrastructure maintenance appear and they cause environmental aggravation in the suburbs. Since public transportation is insufficient especially, it is easy to set the problem by motorization. It was parallel to emasculation of a manufacturing industry advanced.

Thirdly, as rapid urbanization, sprawl, and the ghollowh of manufacture proceeds, industrial land becomes left as wasteland, called gBrownfieldh, meaning contaminated and devastated land.


(2) The subject about immigration, and some social equipment


  The portion of the immigrants in NYC is largest in the New York Metropolitan Region. Therefore, while the history and culture of each race and ethnic community flourish an infinite charm to residents or a traveler in every place, an acute subject with surely arises due to the difference of lifestyle, the conflict with the incomprehensiveness of other languages, and difficulties for providing public services.

   For this reason, the U.S. citizens and New Yorkers who themselves must have been immigrants will have mingled emotion late-coming immigration. The Gallup, the most trustworthy opinion poll in the United States, has been setting up the same question about immigration since 1965, and it has brought the result on which has shown such U.S. people's mingled consciousness (chart 6).

Generally, at the time of prosperity, to a friendly view becoming strong to immigration, if it becomes dull, US citizen has the tendency for a severe view to become strong to immigration.

The City of New York authorities have clarified the posture of support to immigration traditionally. As for it, not only the Democratic Party mayor of support by minorities but also the Republican Party mayor's basis is the same from the first. For example, Mayor Rudolf Giuliani says, "New York is a city of immigrants within a nation of immigrants. These individuals add immeasurably to the economic, civic, and cultural life of our city, and they serve as a constant reminder of the courage, determination, and idealism that fueled those who have sought opportunity in our country for more than 200 years.h(cf.2)

 Moreover, the city government has been requesting the frame expansion of the H-1B visa given to laborers with special skill from the federal government. (cf.3) It is because this visa is required in order for immigrants to set to work on IT industry and the fashion community which bear development of city economy.

However, segregation is still deep-rooted in New York City compared to integration even now. The hate-crime has not extinguished yet. The tendency to cluster for every race and race has still maintained (chart 7). In New York, friction between races and solution of the Inner-City problem in which it was closely concerned with and has been formed serve as an always central subject, cause, and are also the still biggest subject now.

In 1994, in order to improve a city situation that a high unemployment rate and a high crime occur frequently, the Giuliani Administration set the first aim at the stability of the safety that is a base for citizenfs life.

Mayor Giuliani appointed Mr. William J. Bratton, who had raised the big actual result as the Boston Police Commissioner, as the NYPD Commissioner. He launched the reform of the police. He also introduced the criminal statistics system called gCOMPSTATh that utilized IT, and did grasping criminal generating & arresting situation in arrangement of a unit on real time. Bratton transferred authority from the Police Plaza to the every Precinct boldly and raised the morale of every police officer who was fighting cruel crimes on street.

On the other hand, the atrocious crime decreased sharply as a result of increasing the police officers remarkably and controlling the street crimes which had been left till then (chart 8)(cf.4).The Giuliani administration promoted the conversion for labor welfare from welfare again while setting about reform of administrative organization. Furthermore, in order to expand employment, the Giuliani Administration implemented seamless tax reductions and it strove for activation of companies. The Giuliani Administration that governed NYC for 2 terms developing such a measure is highly esteemed with these accomplishments.

However, when we focus on the urban planning and the development in the New York, we get aware of the existence of which we must pay attention to as well as the measures of municipal government. As one of their traditions, New Yorker may have in their history confrontation between races, the organization that solves an inner city problem, and a place in great numbers.

 Such an organization and the place are indispensable in order to solve the dispute in city area redevelopment, community development, or neighboring society. In addition, they sometimes unite, and move a state government and the federal government. As this, they have big influence on city planning. The face-to- face in such an area faced people, and there could not be any prosperity of present New York without honest activity of the organization, which improves the area. Then, I mention some examples as below.


(3)Community Board


  I would like to mention gCommunity Board" in the first place. This is a committee based on the City of New York Charter, which is the highest law of New York City. It defines the city administration, the relation between city organization and authority, and responsibility to the citizen, etc. In 1951, First Community Planning Council started in what was installed by the Borough President of Manhattan. In 1963, New York City government established the Community Planning Boards based on New York City Charter. It was mainly the place of the deliberations about land use these days. After that, in 1968, Local Law (regulations enacted based on the City Charter) expanded the authority of the community plan committee. The community board of 59 was installed with revision of a city charter. Moreover, in 1989, the Charter Revision Commission had strengthened the role of the community board in environment monitoring, while changing a city administrative organ.

Now, five Boroughs in the city are classified into Community District (one area makes a population of 250,000 a maximum) of 59 in total, and this committee has 50 committee members.

The Borough President, who is an elective office, nominates the committee of 25 halves, and City Council Member of local election nominates a next half. Only one District Manager is in charge of each committee, and this manager performs the boardfs office work (this District Manager is the city personnel).

The roles of community boards are mainly presentation of the opinion document to a budget, presentation of the opinion document about land use, and presentation of the opinion document to municipal government and its services. In this, the participation to the procedure (The Uniform Land Use Review Procedure: ULURP) especially about land use brought the big meaning. For example, by community board No.8 (committee of an upper East area including the UN headquarters) of Manhattan, the resolution of rejection was also given to the application of high-rise apartment building construction recently.

However, it is most important as the actual condition to have come to be alike of the role of taking up the dispute and the problem in an area as a subject for discussion, and the solution method being shown, and performing regionally friction between communities is adjusted more often.

For example, how to take out garbage may be different and an antipathy may be disputed by this, because the committee intermediates and solves several types of problems in such a case. Community Board is equipment of a community improvement exceeding the range expected at the beginning although it is simple existence. (cf.5)


(4)CDC: Community Development Corporation


  In the US, especially in New York City, many organizations in connection with community development are acting vigorously.

It is one of them; churches build unionsf object exceeding the doctrine. Business Improvement District is famous because many scholars introduced it in Japan recently in connection with community development. Such organizations are called generically gCommunity Development Corporation (CDC)h. Although about 1,900 CDC exist in the United States, they are considered that in practice much more.

When CDC is sorted by the origin, it has some types. To one, it came from originally the so-called movement of Historic Landmark Preservation, and it came to construct for revitalization of an area. This movement has started when the Penn Station was demolished in 1963. Many people started to claim that historic landmark preservation and restoration were necessary since then. Many examples which not only a big city but also the small city of the suburbs preserves and restores a historical building now, and are used for revival of an established city area are regarded. (cf.6)

Next, I would like to point out many religious community organizations; such Christian churches, and Judaism temples, Muslim churches set good CDC. About the inner city problem, which must take up fighting with poverty from the front from the first, there is a field out of which such an organization could not but come to the front. Various churches are also engaged in offer of community welfare or a residence, and job trainings now.

For example, many churches exist in a Harlem area. When private companies and even city officials withdrew from this area, these churches remained to save the people from poverty and crime. "The Harlem Congregations for Community Improvement; HCCI", which the Baptist Church in Harlem took the lead and was established is this example of representation. Although this organization was performing relief activities for the poverty layer of an area, it has come to tackle construction of housing development, job trainings, and welfare facilities at the beginning aiming at the improvement of a more fundamental community since 1987. The words of Dr. Preston Washington who is the Director-General of HCCI are impressive. "We black people have been gslavesh over the past 200 years or more. It is still the same. If we cannot improve this city by ourselves, we cannot slip out from this servile spirit. An improvement of cities begins from believing. We must collect more people, raise much more funds, and raise the level of a community concretely. "(cf.7)

This organization raises the funds for many also from a financial institution, performs investment to this area, and improves a residence, stores, and welfare facilities.

There is another type of organization built aiming at preservation and a local improvement of property. This example of representation is Business Improvement District (BID). It is the organization of Non-Profit currently installed by making the state law of each state into a basis, and is a quasi-public organization.

According to International Downtown Association assigning its headquarter in Washington, D.C., more than 1200 BID exist now all over the world, and is expanding even to Canada besides the United States, Europe, the countries in the Caribbean Sea, Australia, and South Africa now(cf.8). There are 41 BID in the City of New York now (Manhattan 18, the Bronx 3, Brooklyn 13, and Queens 7).

Although that each BID is carrying out different programs respectively, the many of them are developing the enterprise which employed the special feature of an every region efficiently until they result something from installation of street furniture, patrolling an area, sanitation, job trainings in promotion of the information industry or the tourism.

In New York City, Grand Central Partnership (based on the area around Grand Central Station), Alliance for Downtown NY (located in Lower Manhattan), and several BID are known well. GCP is the famous BID as which promoted Midtown. Alliance for Downtown NY is the one that triggered the revitalizing the blighted lower Manhattan because of gBlack Mondayh and financial crisis.

Many developers restored several empty buildings as new comfortable apartments, and promoted IT industry business in this area with City government. Due to their activities, this area became gSilicone Alleyh where the accumulation of the information industry. 

The main sources of revenue of BID are sources of revenue called gAssessmenth. They are made to decide that some rights of taxation of Real Property Tax that the city office has imposed are transferred to BID, and they are paid to a required place.

The assessment amounts to 52 million dollars in whole City of New York in 2000 (taxation base). The city office executed collection by proxy since assessment was public funds, and they delivered it to BID (cf.9). There are many kinds of regional organizations other than these. All tackle the urban problem centering on a big city, and the big special feature is in the place, which is developing the activity, which is impossible only by governmental organizations.


(5) Regional and/or Specialized Organization


  As the third, it is the over a very wide area and special organization which must be raised. These organizations are the organizations excellent to special subjects over the very wide area, such as environment, traffic, and industry, by making a metropolis region into the range, and perform a special proposal to a government organization.

For example, there is an organization called gRegional Plan Association; RPAh in the New York Metropolitan Region. This is the organization, which tackles the problem of the Tri-State area (consisting of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut).  

 It has been built by the awareness of the issues that problems, such as a sprawl expanded across administrative districts, and air pollution and water pollution, housing supply, cannot be coped with. The members of an executive board are people like scholars, corporate managements, lawyers, financial specialists, and those who are devoting to urban planning in an every place region. Although RPA is a private organization neither controlled nor protected by law, a government organization refers to a proposal and advice of this organization. Governments have adopted some proposals by RPA. Unlike Japan which administration leads and decides upon city planning, such an organization builds and proposes city planning, a regional plan, and a design at first, administration adopts this, and the big special feature is in the place developed as its measure.

In addition, there are public benefit specialist groups like "Tri-State Transportation Campaign". They aim at the improvement of public traffic in the New York Metropolitan Region, and make various kinds of proposals related to urban problems.


3. Urban planning and development in New York


If you oversee the introduced examples in New York so far, you think of some related keywords. They are three words, "History", "Diversity", and "Partnership".


(1)   History


  The United States is a young country less than 300 years since its foundation. Just 103 years has passed since five Boroughs consolidated to New York City. Since the country and the city have always accepted immigrants, US people and New Yorkers have been making effort to ensure and to maintain their identities. It will say, even if the symbol of integration has only the Star-Spangled Banner and English. It comes out, and they value the history just because it is. Many schools regard a lesson of history as so important.

A city is characterized by its formation. In the case of New York, the people from the Netherlands who mainly searched the good harbor for trade built the bridgehead, and it differed in the aspect with many cities in New England launched as a Puritan's migration place. Many people had emigrated from European countries in order to build their wealth, and in quest of freedom for the purpose of trade.

In addition, the art drawing the aspect of beautiful nature or society bloomed after that by the hand of people who had immigrated. We can easily find that New York City has the history relying on such the various free and elastic ways of thinking, and the landmarks here and there.

For example, although it is the Silicone Alley of Lower Manhattan brought into the limelight by IT, it is materialized only after this also has historical foundation. It would apply from the end of the 19th century at the beginning of the 20th century, large-sized newspaper companies and the subcontract companies of those, such as New York Times, put eaves in order, and Lower Manhattan is the area which many journalists lived and committed.

Greenwich Village, SOHO, Chelsea, is the areas where which many artists such as great writers, painters, and musicians, had resided. Without their posterity's talent handed down generation-to-generation and finally expanded on personal computers and internet society, nobody can talk about the prosperity of a Silicone Alley.

Moreover, although Times Square has become the busiest place in the world by Millennium Countdown, its prosperity cannot flourish without its history. Times Square is the ground of the important place which can go to all Boroughs except for Staten Island just by subways (1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and A, C, E, N, R and S lines connect here). Here Times Square depends on it having been the point where citizens gather easily and can go home from various parts of a city by subway also at midnight that countdown came to perform every year. Countdown was not necessarily able to begin as the spot or tool of mere promoting the tourism. It started as an event for citizens that citizens performed spontaneously.

The influence on this background also with the big history of a theater was brought about. From the 1920s to the 1930s, many theaters and amusement facilities were accumulated here, and it was called "The Great White Way", and was the so-called "Ladiesf & Gentlemenfs Street".

While the selling of the alcoholic beverage was prohibited by the Prohibition, the underground organizations got powerful, and the safety on street got worse. The time of the splendid culture centering on a theater ended. After that, movies became popular since the arrival of the Great Depression. Movie was cheaper amusement.

World War II ended, and since the institutions like a bus terminal would be built from the necessity for, a mass transportation network and more people would go back and forth, Times Square changed into the still more popular area. Moreover, if applied to the 1970s from the 1960s, drug dealings and prostitution were performed on the street by the influence of the Vietnam War etc., and the store, which uses a sex as goods, came to put eaves in a row. The safety got worse much more. Eventually, at this age Times Square had become worst place in the city.

For revival of this area, the theater district, which was shining in the 1920s, became a core. It was diverted to a movie theater, or the closed theater was rebuilt, and a musical came to be performed. The source of revenue for restoration was squeezed out by selling off excessive bulk, in order to have been based on investment of the major company, or the tax cut of a city, and also to be specified as a landmark and to be able to perform the air-rights transferring by the zoning solution.

Furthermore, in order that a city might revive the brightness of "the Great White Way", it imposed a duty of splendid neon sign installation like London Piccadilly Circus by zoning, and strove to brew the atmosphere of traditional rows of houses. (cf.10). Of course, partly, although the modern office building was also built, the direct example used as the core of local revival of tradition and history was seen here.  

BID of Lower Eastside into which most many immigrants also moved in Manhattan the past and now says, "It is working so that historical building specification of a state and the federal government can be received. Their historical characteristic and historical building in an area were saved, and the building owner was supporting restoring a building so that a historical atmosphere may have been maintainedh. (cf.11). In this area, the apartment in which the immigration, which has flowed in large quantities at the beginning of the 20th century, lived was converted into a museum, and it is being utilizing now as a place that introduces the history of immigration and a life to a tourist as spot of an area.

History was not necessarily respected so much by the urban development of New York from the first. However, when the technology, which made a high-rise building possible, progressed from the 19th century to the 20th century, a downtown came to bristle with a skyscrapers and inferior environment came to arise. The city enacted the first zoning method in the United States in 1916 in order to apply the brakes to this. Then, movement of the building preservation which would change completely the public opinion of New York or the U.S., and would make this the beginning if the demolition of the old Pennsylvania station in 1963 was performed through the time of a lot of housing demolition and the time of large-scale redevelopment and restoration after the 1930s started. Writing "The Death and Life of Great American Cities", the sociologist Jane Jacobs opposed to the large-scale redevelopment accompanied by the clearance. When Le Corbusier advocated New York high-rise apartment building constructions, or the introduction to the East Coast big cities, Jane Jacobs resided in this time Greenwich Village. She became the standard-bearer of movement.

Jacqueline Kennedy did her best for preservation of Grand Central Station which is a typical station building on a par with a Pen Station. These movements were connected with the establishment of a state method or a federal method which utilized the budget and taxation system for protection soon (chart 9). It is said for the effect of the incentive especially by the taxation system to have been remarkable. (cf.12)

 It is one of the special features of New York that we can see the urban development and revitalization, which make use of the historic landmarks here and there as seen above.


(2)   Diversity


  The second keyword of the urban planning of New York is "diversity." We can arrange this word to a "function", a "technique", and the diversity of a "background."


(a)   Diversity of a function


  Each block in New York has various functions. If you see the land use in Manhattan, you will find about 9,000 lots serving as an object for habitation, and a mixed use for commerce among all 44,130 lots. Moreover, it has also set to Downtown and Midtown with many most business-use buildings, and the block for residential buildings exists at a remarkable rate in such areas (chart 10). This is the proof of there being many those who desire proximity of residence and office, and has pursued this various functions nature in the purpose depending on an area.

  The clearest example is the revitalization of Lower Manhattan area. The economy of the U.S. and of New York City has gone to the stagnation term since October 19 "Black Monday", 1987. Especially, by Lower Manhattan which holds Wall Street, since the company relevant to finance and insurance, and real estate (FIRE: Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate) supported the great portion of employment, it would be extensively influenced as an area of the economic recession which started in sudden fall of a stock price. Among 80,000 people and the private sector, 310,000 of those who are engaged in FIRE (Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate) in the New York City from 1987 before 1993 lost the job. Moreover, the rate of a vacant room of this area reached to 30% in 1994.

  People carried out performing making the space in which it can live comfortably while establishing the regional economy, which can keep bearing the economic fluctuation by diversification of a type of industry.  They considered that such a result was brought about as an invaluable teaching, since it was dependent on FIRE too much, and applying the brakes to residentfs reduction to aiming. (cf.13)

  They cooperated with tackling promotion and an improvement of an area by BID, cooperating with a city and taking the part to training of IT industry, and the program with focusing on preparing the residential spaces (chart 11).

  Consequently, the restoration and reconstruction of empty offices, which had been built before 1975, were supplied to 5,000 or more unit apartments. It was equal to the 5.8m million square feet floor for residence (chart 12). Like many food shops, schools, medical offices were located. Moreover, training of IT industry performed by one side the incentive by the taxation system and centering on the construction of the network between companies located in an area stored a success, and employment increased. Furthermore, the revitalization, which harnessed much tourist attractions, such as a goddess of freedom and South Street Seaport, also progressed. This area resulted to have various functions activating 7 days, 24 hours.


(b)   Diversity of tools


The technique of urban development is also very various in New York. It started in grant of the incentive by regulation by the statute, and the taxation system etc., and many techniques of having made full use of contents, such as an art and an image, are taken in.

I would introduce how CDCs collect their fund for urban planning, development, and community development as follows. (cf.14)


@) Fund-raising: From those who consent to a fund raising organization, the meaning of activity, and the purpose. If the side, which raises fund-raising, is registered into the state government as an organization of Not-for-Profit in that case, it will be made at the side, which the tax cut, contributed according to the contributed amount of money. Moreover, when fund-raising is being raised by the membership system, it is made at the side which a certain privilege and service offer contributed.


A) Volunteerism: I have it offered to work. This is also considered a kind of supply of funds. In addition, free offer of rooms, such as a meeting and a forum, is considered the same way.


B) Commission (Charging Fees): What collects a commission from those who participate in a certain program that CDC performs, or a company. There is an example, such as obtaining as an example the commission, which served as contribution from the company, which participates in an open-air market. Moreover, the commission to the office service of law accounts, etc., which CDC is offering, may be collected.


C) Assessment: I already mentioned this as above.


D) Tax Increment Financing: Structure currently made into an income in the fixed amount at CDC when the increase of asset value and tax revenues is extended by new development.

Structure lent to redevelopment through the development public corporation of the area.


F) Loan Pool: financial institution pools funds, without defining the candidate for a loan, and becomes a medium.


G) Micro Loan: What performs the loan of a very small frame (about 2500 dollars) for repair of an outer wall, repair of an instrument, a change, etc. to accumulate. In addition, since issue of the debenture (minibond) of a small sum etc. is performed, the flexibility of financing is quite high.


(c)    Diversity of a background


  In fact, just the diversity originating in being a use area or being a very ethnic town as a problem precedent to techniques, such as a taxation system, has done big influence over city area formation, administration service, and the whole management surface of a community.

If an example is first given in respect of hard, there is a sign. City of New York -- in fact -- an official language -- there is nothing.

It does not have to use English although English is used fundamentally in fact. And in the area which immigration is concentrating, the native language of immigration for a sign is used together in many cases.

In the Chinatown in southern Manhattan, the sign in which a passage is shown serves as English and writing together of a Chinese character. In addition, a sign original with each community may be installed.

These signs are installed by requesting to the Department of Transportation from a community side in fact (cf.15). While English in the area raises unfamiliar residents' convenience, the effect, which raises the identity of an area, is acquired by this. Moreover, on the enclosure of a subway station, in case the surface of a wall on a platform etc. is repaired, creativity is put and it has become very various ornaments to make the noted board of a name of the station into what has a local rich color etc (cf.16). This is the same also in city administration service. For example, citizens receive many flyers for 7-8 languages print information of garbage collection (cf.17).

Although this has the deep tone currently performed under the pressure of the necessity that the information from a city is well-known rather than the service offered spontaneously itself, it can say anyway that it is characteristic administration service of this city no one but.


(3)   Partnership


  Next way of thinking about city planning of New York is cooperation (Partnership). As I pointed out previously, unlike Japan, administration does not show city planning probably, but the organization with which a private sector, a community, and administration surely shows a certain design, and it is proposed to administration, among those, administration adopts a realizable thing, and it shifts to enforcement in many cases in New York.

Here, one example of iron orbital maintenance is given. "Regional Plan Association; RPAh, which touched previously announced "The Third Plan -A Region at Risk-" in 1996 (cf.18). This is a regional vision that proposed the measures that grasped the problem of the New York Metropolitan Region synthetically, and would be turned in the 21st century.

In this planning, RPA symbolized the quality of life in Tri-State Area in the three following "E."


(a)Economy: While business retreated sharply from the end of the economy of the 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s, unemployment increased. Moreover, the income of the central core part was low and the so-called "urban sprawl of income" was seen.

(b)Environment: 350,000-acre park areas increased in number from the 1960s. However, on the other hand, the standard of the air cleanness that the federal government defined was not cleared. Moreover, in the suburbs, a sprawl continued. It spread to hills, forest and farmland. In the suburbs, urbanizing rate was higher than growth rate of population.

(c)Equity: More than the half of the New York Metropolitan Region residents would become African, Asian, and Latino in 2020. When there was no inflow of people with various foreign culture and talents, there was no prosperity of present New York. However, unskilled workers increase in number by one side, and the area is confronting of social problems, such as low income and unemployment. New employment, the education more than the minimum junior college is necessary for the future. Job trainning is required also.


After pointing out the subject of such "three E", RPA raises a policy in each field. Among those, maintenance of a rapid transit railway is proposed about the traffic problem ("Rx" is called).

This is the proposal from three viewpoints of increase of economic development, an environmental problem, and an employment opportunity. In this proposal, while offer of the rapid transit railway service using the existing orbit etc. is proposed, construction of the light rail transit linked to JFK and the Newark airport is proposed.

Port Authority NY&NJ actually adopted these two proposals. A name is "Airtrain." About Newark, it will already be opened for traffic in October, this year, and will be the schedule of opening of traffic about JFK next year (chart 13). RPA announced the design called "Metrolink" into which this gRxh was developed in further 1999 (chart 14). This design is a service of the subway, which is mainly the core of the transportation network of New York is raised, and can enable commutation to Manhattan from the large-scale housing complex in the Bronx, or can go without a change to JFK from Grand Central Station by high-speed subway (one-seat trip) and which is made like. It is in building the subway new line of this design to which it goes from the population high-density area of the Manhattan. The new line from the Upper East Side to the downtown in short under 2nd Avenue is a very important plan. Now, everybody must ride Lexington line. Metropolitan Transit Authority concretely examines this proposal now.


4. Tokyofs way of thinking for urban development


   Starting as a base of free trade, Tokyo also has very interesting character compared with the fundamental character of New York, which has continued metabolizing the energy, by immigration. It is the influence of the political organization, which has a close relation with city formation in the first place.

At first, the Edo Shogunate started by Ieyasu Tokugawa as a military regime.  Edo also started as a military city in which gsamuraih groups resided. Although trade also prospered after that and various cultures prospered, Tokyo was pressed for the establishment of a modern state to oppose Western Powers after the Meiji Revolution. In this process, the city construction, which started in disposal of a samurai residence, construction of the Ginza Brick Avenue or Rokumeikan, construction of a railroad, telegraphic construction, etc., started. There could not be any rapid modernization without strong centralized national regime. This regime has remained as fundamental character until the surge of decentralization and the trial to reform got into stride.

It is the influence of a catastrophic disasters the second. This is main reason why Tokyo Governor Michiyuki Matsuda tried to opt for municipal district revision, and was going to establish the city planning of new Tokyo. Disasters and recovery constructions were crucial factors to several historical facts for the formation of Tokyo skeleton. The incomplete planning of the big hub port, the recovery from the big earthquake led by the 7th Tokyo Mayor Shimpei Goto, and incomplete postwar recovery city planning, is the represent examples.

We should raise the surge of internationalization and computerization after The Second World War as the third element of Tokyo. Tokyo, which had been a domestic city fundamentally, got started to expand a point of contact with the world since then. After the Second World War, several new elements of lifestyle fluxed in large quantities from the United States. Food, clothing and shelter changed violently and modernistic technology came in.

Although there are several other elements mentioned yet, these three are main factors to have specified the character of Tokyo. Then, in future, how can we have the new way of thinking for the urban development in Tokyo? So far, I reviewed the structure of New York with its history and its way of thinking for its community development.

I would like to perform some suggestions in accordance with some points of argument from here.


(1)   History inherent


55 years has passed since the Second World War finished. In addition, we can count 80 year since Kanto Big Earthquake, 130 years from Meiji Revolution, and 400 years from Edo Shogunatefs foundation. So many historical property which we can see everywhere in Tokyo now are formulated in these years. Although these properties are not well known, there are many New Yorkers interested in them (cf19). Many of them are not observing the power of Japanese economy, and they have observed the thickness of history and culture. Many Shrines, Buddhist temples and wooden buildings, which have kept bearing the snowstorm for hundreds of years, are those about which they are strongly concerned. Because NYC is immigrant city, and they cannot hold such properties based on long history.

They are also holding concern in the modern civilization imported from Western Europe having continued coexisting with the culture in which Japan has had them from ancient times. In addition, concern is held in the history of Tokyo after finishing postwar revival again. For example, there are no rapid railways like Shinkansen in the US. Moreover, they are paying attention to the coexisting the modern technology and ancient history symbolized by four-hundred-year wooden houses. We should recognize that we have invaluable source and concept for urban redevelopment. History itself is the key. (cf.20)

Even New York only with the sorter history than Tokyo has tried the urban development with historical landmarks and cultural property.

We Tokyo people should pay attention to their attitude to respect and to focus on the history, not the appearance of the city.

I think in that case that it is also necessary to consider more both the method of preservation and the restoration may serve as powerful arms. The New York City Planning Department has applied special zoning to Water Front. A beautiful waterside scene is preserved to be handed down to future generations as civic share property. This is the fundamental way of thinking. It is specifically obliged to reserve 15 - 20% of a site as public space, or the building restrictions of securing a width of at least 600 feet (about 20m) from waterfs edge as "a scene corridor (Visual Corridor)" are performed. Furthermore, the builder and the lawyer are invited and matched with the personnel who take charge of office work from the exterior. Thus, a scene and a public space are preserved as property to future generations, and it is considered whether the method of leaving work to the posture in which it is going to use as resources and the thing with special skill and a special sense should greatly consider as reference.


(2)   Diversity


Tokyo is also the city where many people are in and out. 430,000-440,000 people move into Tokyo every year, and 400,000 people move out. Moreover, the expatriate registrationfs population broke through 300,000 people in 2001. An ethnic part is expanding.

We have been anxious about frictions with circumference areas from the former in such areas. It will be the key of the future point whether the local equipment, which performs the adjustment, grows up. Furthermore, the policy in Japanese society may also be necessary by announcing such ethnic areas as individually attractive areas, and inviting tourists. Moreover, if we trace the history once again, we realize the aspect of another Tokyo in various and multistory way. The names of the places and the blocks since Edo remain. The scholars of each major have pointed out that the aspect that piled up times, such as a structure after the Meiji Revolution, area structures after the Great Kanto Earthquake, and architects, are seen in Tokyo. Such the depth is seldom felt for New York.

Furthermore, I like to consider here the function of the block in modernistic CBD (Central Business District). We should focus on the fact that the areas in prosperity have formed not just one use but the block with many functions. We can see this fact in Marunouchi area recently. At this point, it is clearly inferior to New York. We need multiple land use much more because our lifestyles are changing. New York has many blocks with complex functions. I think that it becomes one point how such an area is formed.


(3)   Cooperation


It is in New York mostly and a thing few to Tokyo is this. This is because the present statutes were established and have been fundamentally revised in the flow of a centralization-of-power system. Therefore, we have to change such systems one by one. With such a viewpoint, Tokyo Metropolitan Government proposes some interesting recommendations. For example, "Block Reorganization Program" was proposed in October 2001, with the "New City-Planning Vision of Tokyo" upon which the city planning office decided. This system enables it to develop again by giving authority collectively over the frame of the present statute by agreement of a local large majority in center of Tokyo for a fixed block. Because the whole country are bound by the uniform statute and the urban renewal having not progressed, flexibility is raised and the production of characteristic structure is aimed at for every area in which the local intention was made to reflect. Of course, I think that this proposal still has many complications in many points. Therefore, at this time, the proposal from more specialist groups and areas is called for. Anyway, this is the proposal, which includes the possibility of cooperation with various organizations.


5. Conclusion


When the John F. Kennedy junior fell to his death in 1999, New Yorkers felt so sad. So many people who brought bouquets gathered in front of his apartmentfs gate. The bouquets made the big accumulated piles. I thought the reason why New Yorkers felt so sad was he had had a frank personal character, and he had been a presidential son.

Next day, a friend of mine who is a New Yorker, pointed out my error. New Yorker felt so sad because the Kennedy is the first minority family, which produced a US President (it is an Irish at Catholic). My friend also told me that the US is the country, which cannot have a royal family like Britain, Japan, and Sweden. Americans were seeking for the family like that. It was just the Kennedy family.

I felt that I could understand New Yorker's mentality since then. Moreover, I became to understand the reason why they were impressed with Japanese policing system with police boxes installed in every neighborhood, the reason why they were interested in Japanese school where students make the classrooms clean by themselves, and the serene parks located in central business area of Tokyo. What they recognize as a special feature of Tokyo or Japan is the severity, diligent workers, and the lifestyle and city space based on these, which the United States does not have and which reach to an extreme of the depth, stillness, discretion, and a way.

Considering these, Japan has been importing not a good portion but bad portion of the US after the Second World War. A good U.S. portion is, for example, the thing for which it has the generosity of accepting individuality each other. Praising unstintingly to those who tried hard strenuously is also. The heart of consideration of helping each other by surrounding persons is ordinary in NYC. NYC is a big immigrant city. We should understand these features from this point. We cannot get many crops even if we see only a surface-side without understanding the spirit of city society. That is to say, although there are some meanings in having an experience of New York to reference and introducing various examples, it is rare to be obtained even if it compares an only institutional framework and an only statistics.

When we think about urban development, we need the thoughtful attitude. Although it may be useful for us to research foreign examples that serve as a catalyst, it is not directly applicable. The backgrounds and histories of two cities differ completely.

I think that that they do ask us to understand correctly ourselves and the special feature of a Japanese itself. We should consider and protect our own history in pride and hand it down to future generations. This is the first step that rescues Tokyo from gLost Decadeh in fact.


(finalized on December 28, 2001)